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LIST OF FIGURES 1. Treating ailments with phytopharmaceuticals is immemorial. In fact almost every culture in diverse global populations uses various forms of its local plants to treat illnesses (Houghton 2001). The use of traditional medicines from natural products mainly of terrestrial (higher) plants is increasingly high does kratom cause how to lower opiate tolerance especially in developing countries as modern medicine is considered expensive. Although the safety and efficacy of most of the traditional medicines for human use are yet to be thoroughly investigated people still turn to its use due to its availability. In Malaysia one of the pytopharmaceutical sources with unique therapeutic properties is Mitragyna speciosa Korth.
Vehicle-treated control 1. Cell Kratom Recreational proliferation (A) and percentage of dead cells (B) in MSE treated HepG2 cell cultures as determined by the Trypan blue exclusion assay. Cells were treated for 24 48 and 72 hrs and harvested as described in the methods.
Preparation of treatment cultures in the presence of S9 (3 hr) per sample. During this observation any cultures having precipitation are discarded and the remaining cultures were centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 5 minutes and the supernatant gently discarded leaving undisturbed pellet. The pellet was then resuspended in 5 ml pre-warmed PBS and re-centrifuged second times and supernatant was removed as before.
Effect of MSE and MIT on the cell cycle distribution 4. Human embryo kidney- HEK 293 cells 4. Human lymphoblastoid- MCL-5 cells 4.
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